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Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet 2013;4(4):228-234

Original Article
LHRH and LHR genotypes and prostate cancer incidence and survival

Sue Ann Ingles, Stephen V Liu, Jacek Pinski

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA; Lombardi
Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA; Division of Medical Oncology,
Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA

Received October 20, 2013; Accepted November 15, 2013; Epub November 28, 2013; Published December 15, 2013

Abstract: Despite their crucial role in initiating steroid-hormone synthesis, the hypothalamic and pituitary hormones (LH,
LHRH) and their receptors have received scant attention in genetic studies of hormone-related diseases. This study included
1,170 men diagnosed with prostate cancer (PC) in Los Angeles County between 1999 and 2003. LHRH and LH receptor
genotypes were examined for association with PC survival. Additionally, associations with PC incidence were examined by
comparing PC cases to control men of similar age and race/ethnicity. The LHR 312 G allele was found to be associated with
increased PC mortality (p=0.01). Ten years after diagnosis, 16% of men carrying two copies of the G allele (genotype GG) had
died of PC, compared to 11% of those with genotype AG and 9% of those with AA. In a case-control comparison, this same
allele was significantly associated with decreased PC risk: OR=0.68 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.93) for genotype GG vs. AA. These results
suggest that androgens may play opposing roles in PC initiation and progression, and highlight the need to include these
important but overlooked genes in future studies of PC etiology, prognosis, and treatment. (IJMEG1310003).

Keywords: Prostate cancer, LHRH, LHR, genetic polymorphism, survival, association study

Address correspondence to: Dr. Sue Ann Ingles, Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. E-mail: ingles@usc.edu; Stephen V Liu, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center,
Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA. E-mail: Stephen.V.Liu@gunet.georgetown.edu; Jacek Pinski,
Division of Medical Oncology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA. E-mail:
pinski@med.usc.edu