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Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet 2013;4(3):167-174

Original Article
Molecular epidemiology of selected sexually transmitted infections

Hamid Jalal, Andrew Delaney, Neil Bentley, Christopher Sonnex, Christopher A Carne

Clinical Microbiology & Public Health Laboratory, Box 236, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, UK; Department of
Genitourinary Medicine, Clinic 1A, Box 38, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, UK

Received August 21, 2013; Accepted September 5, 2013; Epub September 12, 2013; Published September 15, 2013

Abstract: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium
(MG) are established pathogens for human genital tract. However, the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Ureaplasma
parvum (UP) in genital pathology is poorly unerstood. A prospective study to investigate the prevalence of above infections was
performed on a cohort of 1,718 consecutive patients attending a Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) clinic. A previously published in-
house real-time PCR assay, for the detection of CT DNA in genital swabs, was modified for this study. Two amplification
reactions detected the DNAs of TV, NG, MG, CT, UU and UP in genital swabs from 4 (0.2%), 11 (0.6%), 17 (1%), 129 (8%), 282
(16%) and 636 (37%) patients, respectively. 594 (70%) of 848 women and 333 (38%) of 870 men were infected with at least
one type of microorganism. Among 594 infected females, 485 (82%) had a single infection, 97 (16%) had a double infection,
and 12 (2%) had a triple infection. Of the 333 infected men, 304 (91%) had a single infection, 27 (8%) had a double infection,
and 2 (1%) had a triple infection. The prevalence of infection in both genders decreased with increasing age. The prevalence
proportion of UP was significantly higher in women (54%) compared with men (18%). The high prevalence of UU and UP
suggests that these bacteria are commensals of genital tract. (IJMEG1308005).

Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma
urealyticu, Ureaplasma parvum, epidemiology, PCR

Address correspondence to: Dr. Hamid Jalal, Clinical Microbiology & Public Health Laboratory, Box 236, Addenbrooke’s
Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, UK. E-mail: hamid.jalal@addenbrookes.nhs.uk